Marrakchi, Y., Barcala, X., Gambra, E., Aissati, S., Martinez-Ibarburu, I., Dorronsoro C. & Sawides, L.; Experimental characterization, modelling and compensation of temperature effects in optotunable lenses. Sci Rep 13, 1575 (2023). For more information, click here.
Most tunable lenses (TLs) are affected by deviations in optical power induced by external temperature changes or due to internal heating while in use. This study proposes: (1) An experimental characterization method to evaluate the magnitude of the optical power deviations due to internal temperature shifts; (2) three different mathematical models (experimental, polynomial, and optimized) to describe the response of the lens with temperature; (3) predictions of the internal temperature shifts while using the lens in time frames of minutes, seconds, and milliseconds and; (4) a real time optical power compensation tool based on the implementation of the models on a custom voltage electronic driver. The compensation methods were successfully applied to two TL samples in static and dynamic experiments and in hysteresis cycles. After 40 min at a static nominal power of 5 diopters (dpt), the internal temperature exponentially increased by 17 °C, producing an optical power deviation of 1.0 dpt (1.5 dpt when the lens cools down), representing a 20% distortion for heating and 30% for cooling. Modelling and compensation reduced the deviations to 0.2 dpt when heating (0.35 dpt when cooling) and the distortions to 4% and 7%. Similar levels of improvement were obtained in dynamic and hysteresis experiments. Compensation reduced temperature effects by more than 75%, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the lens.